Forces and Forms of Change in Doctoral Education Worldwide II: A Research Synthesis

Principal Investigator: 
Project Overview
Background & Purpose: 

To meet the urgent need for up-to-date information about developments in doctoral education, CIRGE created the “Forces and Forms of Change in Doctoral Education Worldwide Network” (F&F Network) with a workshop in 2005. This second workshop deepened the understanding of international comparative benchmarking of doctoral education quality and prepared for the third workshop, which focused on policy and implementation.


The members of the F&F Network represent 20 countries. Research was done by these participants in their respective countries with collaboration and communication done through the CIRGE website. Synthesis of the research was completed at a workshop help in Melbourne, Australia, co-hosted by the University of Melbourne.

Research Design: 

This project is comparative and is designed to generate evidence that is descriptive [design research] and associative/ correlational [interpretive commentary] and synthetic [meta-analysis].

The research questions that were agreed upon at the first workshop were the core of the F&F II workshop. At F&F II participants gave feedback on research papers team members had prepared based on key issues identified at the 2005 meeting. After critical review and discussion on these papers, agreement was formed on how to present these findings in a publication.


Toward a Global PhD: Forces & Forms in Doctoral Education Worldwide, an outcome of the 2005 F&F I workshop, presents doctoral education innovations in 14 countries and summarizes the data across nations in a matrix format.

Publications & Presentations: 

The book resulting from this project will be available in mid-2011:

Doctoral Education Fit for the Future:
What Globalization Means for Quality in Doctoral Education

Table of Contents


Introduction: The Changing Nature of Doctoral Education under Globalization
Maresi Nerad

Chapter One: The Continuing Evolution of the Research Doctorate
Bianca L. Bernstein, Barbara Evans, Jeanette Fyffe, Nelofer Halai, Fred Hall, Helene Marsh, Suzanne Ortega, and Hans Siggard Jensen

Chapter Two: Forces Acting on Doctoral Education from the View Point of Early Career Researchers
Jessica Graybill, Vivek Shandas, Jeannette Fyffe, and Emma Flores

Chapter Three: Selected International Comparison of PhD Enrollments and Degrees Awarded
Terry Evans, Dean Gerdeman, Ian Haines, Fred Hall, Kevin Ryland, and Helena Sebkovado

Chapter Four: Evaluation and Quality Management in Europe, Mexico and South Africa
Mauricio Fortes, Barbara M. Kehm, Tokozile Mayekiso,

Chapter Five: Doctoral Education in the Era of Globalization
Ahmed Bawa, Hans Kristján Guđmundsson, Narayana Jayaram, and Margaret Kiley

Chapter Six: Doctoral Education and Cultural and Economic Prosperity: Nation-Building in the Era of Globalization
Louis Maheu, Beate Scholz, Jorge Balan, Jessica Graybill, Richard Strugnell, with the collaboration of Kazunori Higuchi

Conclusion: Fitness for Use: Critical Tensions in Doctoral Education Worldwide
Maresi Nerad

The Melbourne Declaration, March 2007

Target Population: 


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