The project uses a longitudinal and cross-sectional research design and will generate evidence that is correlational and causal [experimental]. We are collecting original data on students in 6th-8th grades in math and science classes using assessments of learning, observation [personal observation], and survey research [paper & pencil]. Interventions using Read-and-sketch; Read-and-Self-explain; Read, Sketch, and Self-explain; Read, Self-explain, and Sketch are being compared with a Read-only condition.

Instruments or measures being used include how many of 8 problems (4 math and 4 science) are solved correctly. Hidden figures and mental rotations tests will capture dynamic and static spatial abilities, along with a visuospatial working memory test. We will also measure motivations for using diagrams in math and science (valuing, self-efficacy, preferences, and anxiety) and motivations for sketching in math and science. We will use a series of repeated-measures ANOVA and ANCOVA analyses on cross-sectional data, growth curve modeling on longitudinal data, and correlations for process data.